Hirayama, T., Solar Phys. 34, 323, 1974 ADS

Click on the image above for a larger .gif version, or get the .eps file (1.2 MB, obviously an important advance!).

Hirayama's paper was one of the first in its genre to make use of the third dimension explicitly, and it also had a modern discussion of "chromospheric evaporation" as one can see from the trenches the coronal loop digs into the chromosphere. This basically explained the effect noted by Neupert in 1968. Later cartoons often didn't even gesture at the third dimension, but in fact our top boffins now think that only the presence of as many as three dimensions makes an eruption possible. Luckily we don't have four of them, because most computational simulations of flares are still stuck in two! Lord help us if string theory is necessary.

Note please the perhaps prescient use of open field lines prior to the eruption. This may make an instability easier to think about in a bipolar configuration?

Nov. 18, 2006
Jan. 17, 2008

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