Kane, S. R., and Donnelly, R. F., "Impulsive hard X-ray and ultraviolet emission during solar flares," ApJ 164, 151 (1971).

Click on the image above for a larger version of the .gif file, now including other steps in the time sequence the authors envision.

This cartoon captures the basic observational underpinning of the thick-target model, which envisions an electron beam penetrating the lower solar atmosphere from a black box in the corona. The classic paper it appeared in clearly presented the world with the "number problem" and the vexing issue of how to imagine that magnetic reconnection somehow - in a fluid approximation - put most of the flare energy into a non-thermal particle beam.

October 3, 2006

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